Biosolids Management

The City of Kamloops and its residents produce an average of 12,500 bulk tonnes of biosolids every year through the treatment process at the Kamloops Sewage Treatment Centre (KSTC). This includes sewage treated from the Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc through an existing sewer agreement.

Following the construction upgrades at KSTC, the improved treatment process resulted in more biosolids being produced. Biosolids were stockpiled on site at KSTC while a management plan was being developed. The City of Kamloops is addressing the immediate need for short-term biosolids management while seeking potential long-term alternatives to traditional biosolids management techniques - The final recommended

The City of Kamloops and its residents produce an average of 12,500 bulk tonnes of biosolids every year through the treatment process at the Kamloops Sewage Treatment Centre (KSTC). This includes sewage treated from the Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc through an existing sewer agreement.

Following the construction upgrades at KSTC, the improved treatment process resulted in more biosolids being produced. Biosolids were stockpiled on site at KSTC while a management plan was being developed. The City of Kamloops is addressing the immediate need for short-term biosolids management while seeking potential long-term alternatives to traditional biosolids management techniques - The final recommended long-term management options will be presented to City Council by the end of Q2 2019.

Triple Bottom Line Evaluation Process

A Biosolids Management Stakeholder Committee was struck by the City to seek feedback and input from a variety of stakeholders on a long-term strategy for the management and beneficial reuse of biosolids. A triple bottom line (TBL) evaluation process was then established by the Committee to allow for each of the many options reviewed based on economic, environmental, and social impacts. The evaluation criteria included:

Environmental Impacts: A weighting for specific environmental impacts including carbon footprint, energy reliance, and potential pollution discharges to the environment.

Economical Impacts: A weighting for capital costs, operations, and maintenance costs.

Social Impacts: A weighting for compatibility with adjacent land, impacts such as noise, traffic, odor, and public acceptance.

The goal of the committee is to produce a robust group of options for consideration for the long-term management of biosolids, which will be shared with Kamloops City Council for consideration.

Discussions: All (9) Open (1)
  • You need to be signed in to add your comment.

    Sw biosolidsmanagement tbl icons

    Triple Bottom Line Evaluation Process

    A Biosolids Management Stakeholder Committee was struck by the City to seek feedback and input from a variety of stakeholders on a long-term strategy for the management and beneficial reuse of biosolids. A triple bottom line (TBL) evaluation process was then established by the Committee to allow for each of the many options reviewed based on economic, environmental, and social impacts. The evaluation criteria included:

    Environmental Impacts: A weighting for specific environmental impacts including carbon footprint, energy reliance, and potential pollution discharges to the environment.

    Economical Impacts: A weighting for capital costs, operations, and maintenance costs.

    Social...

    Triple Bottom Line Evaluation Process

    A Biosolids Management Stakeholder Committee was struck by the City to seek feedback and input from a variety of stakeholders on a long-term strategy for the management and beneficial reuse of biosolids. A triple bottom line (TBL) evaluation process was then established by the Committee to allow for each of the many options reviewed based on economic, environmental, and social impacts. The evaluation criteria included:

    Environmental Impacts: A weighting for specific environmental impacts including carbon footprint, energy reliance, and potential pollution discharges to the environment.

    Economical Impacts: A weighting for capital costs, operations, and maintenance costs.

    Social Impacts: A weighting for compatibility with adjacent land, impacts such as noise, traffic, odor, and public acceptance.

    The goal of the committee is to produce a robust group of options for consideration for the long-term management of biosolids, which will be shared with Kamloops City Council for consideration.



    comment
    Reply notification settings
    Submitting your comment
    Cancel
  • High-Rate Biomass Production

    by Quinn, 4 months ago
    The Stakeholder Committee has completed the TBL evaluation of this method. Results will be presented to City Council by the end of Q2 2019.

    You need to be signed in to add your comment.

    Sw biosolidsmanagement graphics 198x148 jan2019 biomass

    High-rate biomass production involves growing short-rotation trees, such as willows and hybrid poplars, and utilizing biosolids to assist in rapid growth of these trees, which are harvested every three to four years. Biosolids are applied to the biomass sites seasonally every year. The lifetime of the tree plantation can last up to three decades. The harvested trees are processed further, depending on the end use. This option can be used collaboratively with a composting process because wood chips are an extremely suitable material for biosolids composting. Dried wood chips can also be used as a fuel source for

    High-rate biomass production involves growing short-rotation trees, such as willows and hybrid poplars, and utilizing biosolids to assist in rapid growth of these trees, which are harvested every three to four years. Biosolids are applied to the biomass sites seasonally every year. The lifetime of the tree plantation can last up to three decades. The harvested trees are processed further, depending on the end use. This option can be used collaboratively with a composting process because wood chips are an extremely suitable material for biosolids composting. Dried wood chips can also be used as a fuel source for
    many applications such as boiler fuel.

    What is the end use or product? 

    Trees are harvested and made into wood chips—a carbon-neutral fuel source that can be used in biosolids composting and other processes that require fuel. Wood chips can also be used for landscaping.

    Does this allow for composting of organics/yard waste?

    The woodchips generated from this technology support composting, which could help in processing more moist organic waste that may not have otherwise been composted.

    How are contaminants removed?

    Pathogens are killed and organic contaminants are degraded due to number of natural physical, chemical, and biological processes within the soil/plant system including sunlight and beneficial bacteria. Organic materials and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are absorbed in to the plant biomass.

    Download the Flatsheet



    Replies Closed
  • In-Vessel Composting

    by Quinn, 4 months ago
    The Stakeholder Committee has completed the TBL evaluation of this method. Results will be presented to City Council by the end of Q2 2019.

    You need to be signed in to add your comment.

    Sw biosolidsmanagement graphics 198x148 jan2019 composting

    In-vessel composting is a technology in which biosolids are composted within an enclosed container. The main advantages of in-vessel composting are the ability to contain air emissions, have shorter composting times, and a smaller production footprint. This technology requires amendment materials such as woodchips, sawdust, and/or yard waste.

    What is the end use or product? 

    This technology would produce compost that meets Organic Matter Recycling Regulations (OMRR) Class A requirements, which can be used for a variety of purposes such as compost products in flower beds, vegetable gardens, or on lawns.

    Does...

    In-vessel composting is a technology in which biosolids are composted within an enclosed container. The main advantages of in-vessel composting are the ability to contain air emissions, have shorter composting times, and a smaller production footprint. This technology requires amendment materials such as woodchips, sawdust, and/or yard waste.

    What is the end use or product? 

    This technology would produce compost that meets Organic Matter Recycling Regulations (OMRR) Class A requirements, which can be used for a variety of purposes such as compost products in flower beds, vegetable gardens, or on lawns.

    Does this allow for composting of organics/yard waste?

    Yes, curbside organics and yard waste can be included in the composting process.

    How are contaminants removed?

    A large number of various micro-organisms including bacteria, fungi and other organisms such as worms breakdown the organic contaminants in the biosolids. Pathogens are reduced through heat generated from biological reactions. Pathogens are also killed by natural competition between the large number of beneficial microorganisms.



    Replies Closed
  • Land Application

    by Quinn, 4 months ago
    The Stakeholder Committee has completed the TBL evaluation of this method. Results will be presented to City Council by the end of Q2 2019.

    You need to be signed in to add your comment.

    Sw biosolidsmanagement graphics 198x148 jan2019 land app

    In this option, the nutrients and other beneficial components of the biosolids are harnessed by applying biosolids to agricultural lands as fertilizer and as soil amendments.This process is governed by the provincial Ministry of Environment and Climate Change Strategy through OMRR. OMRR requirements are one of the strictest in the world and take into account the following to ensure environmental and public health protection.
    • amount of biosolids to be applied
    • location
    • notification requirements to stakeholders and citizens
    • timing restrictions and monitoring

    What is the end use or product? 

    Biosolids may be used to...

    In this option, the nutrients and other beneficial components of the biosolids are harnessed by applying biosolids to agricultural lands as fertilizer and as soil amendments.This process is governed by the provincial Ministry of Environment and Climate Change Strategy through OMRR. OMRR requirements are one of the strictest in the world and take into account the following to ensure environmental and public health protection.
    • amount of biosolids to be applied
    • location
    • notification requirements to stakeholders and citizens
    • timing restrictions and monitoring

    What is the end use or product? 

    Biosolids may be used to enhance the agricultural yield of many crops. The end use is the
    soil enhancement, which results in a higher crop yield.

    Does this allow for composting of organics/yard waste?

    Not applicable.

    How are contaminants removed?

    A large number of natural chemical, physical, and biological processes operate within
    the soil matrix that kill pathogens and break down the organic contaminants. Organic
    materials and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are absorbed by the plants.



    Replies Closed
  • The Stakeholder Committee has completed the TBL evaluation of this method. Results will be presented to City Council by the end of Q2 2019.

    You need to be signed in to add your comment.

    Sw biosolidsmanagement graphics 198x148 jan2019 liquid

    Liquefaction involves applying heat and alkaline materials to biosolids and making them into a homogenous liquid. The end-product is a liquid fertilizer certified by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CIFA), which can be used for a variety of agricultural purposes including the fertilization of food crops. The transportation of this product from
    production site to end use can be through enclosed reactors, piping systems, storage, and tanker trucks. This product requires storage during the winter when application is not feasible.

    What is the end use or product? 

    The end product is a pathogen-free, CFIA-approved liquid fertilizer that...

    Liquefaction involves applying heat and alkaline materials to biosolids and making them into a homogenous liquid. The end-product is a liquid fertilizer certified by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CIFA), which can be used for a variety of agricultural purposes including the fertilization of food crops. The transportation of this product from
    production site to end use can be through enclosed reactors, piping systems, storage, and tanker trucks. This product requires storage during the winter when application is not feasible.

    What is the end use or product? 

    The end product is a pathogen-free, CFIA-approved liquid fertilizer that may be injected into the agricultural lands.

    Does this allow for composting of organics/yard waste?

    No.

    How are contaminants removed?

    Due to high alkalinity (pH) and heat within the process, pathogens are killed and organic
    contaminants are broken down.



    Replies Closed
  • Pyrolysis

    4 months ago
    The Stakeholder Committee has completed the TBL evaluation of this method. Results will be presented to City Council by the end of Q2 2019.

    You need to be signed in to add your comment.

    Sw biosolidsmanagement graphics 198x148 jan2019 therm pyro

    Pyrolysis is a thermal technology in which heat is applied to biosolids under limited oxygen and high pressure to produce fuel (known as syngas) and solids (known as biochar). This happens in two stages. First, biosolids are dried and then gasifi ed under heat and pressure in a closed chamber. Gas is generated through a second stage, which can
    be recaptured and used in the biosolids drying process (first stage).

    What is the end use or product? 

    Bio-char can be used for commercial and agricultural purposes such as commercial water
    purification and as a soil...

    Pyrolysis is a thermal technology in which heat is applied to biosolids under limited oxygen and high pressure to produce fuel (known as syngas) and solids (known as biochar). This happens in two stages. First, biosolids are dried and then gasifi ed under heat and pressure in a closed chamber. Gas is generated through a second stage, which can
    be recaptured and used in the biosolids drying process (first stage).

    What is the end use or product? 

    Bio-char can be used for commercial and agricultural purposes such as commercial water
    purification and as a soil supplement.

    Does this allow for composting of organics/yard waste?

    Not applicable.

    How are contaminants removed?

    Pathogens are killed and organic contaminants are broken down due to intense heat
    and pressure.



    Replies Closed
  • Thermal Drying

    4 months ago
    The Stakeholder Committee has completed the TBL evaluation of this method. Results will be presented to City Council by the end of Q2 2019.

    You need to be signed in to add your comment.

    Sw biosolidsmanagement graphics 198x148 jan2019 thermal dry

    Thermal drying technology applies heat to evaporate water from wastewater solids, which also reduces the volume and improves the quality of wastewater biosolids. Currently, the biosolids produced at the KSTC contain about 80% water. With thermal drying, heat is applied to biosolids to reduce moisture to less than 35%. The end product has an energy value similar to low-grade coal and can be used as a fuel replacement in operations such as boilers. Dried biosolids can also be used as a soil enhancement product.

    What is the end use or product? 

    The end...

    Thermal drying technology applies heat to evaporate water from wastewater solids, which also reduces the volume and improves the quality of wastewater biosolids. Currently, the biosolids produced at the KSTC contain about 80% water. With thermal drying, heat is applied to biosolids to reduce moisture to less than 35%. The end product has an energy value similar to low-grade coal and can be used as a fuel replacement in operations such as boilers. Dried biosolids can also be used as a soil enhancement product.

    What is the end use or product? 

    The end product is a Class A biosolids as per OMRR regulations. Class A biosolids can be used in a variety of applications with little or no restrictions.

    Does this allow for composting of organics/yard waste?

    Yard waste can be included in the drying process. High moisture curbside organics may increase drying time, which could increase the cost of processing.

    How are contaminants removed?

    Heat is applied, which breaks down the organic contaminants and kills most pathogens.

    Download the Flatsheet



    Replies Closed
  • The Stakeholder Committee has completed the TBL evaluation of this method. Results will be presented to City Council by the end of Q2 2019.

    You need to be signed in to add your comment.

    Sw biosolidsmanagement graphics 198x148 jan2019 oxidation

    Thermal oxidation is the combustion or burning of organic solids in biosolids to form carbon dioxide and water. The remaining solids are an inert material commonly called ash. Exhaust air in this process is treated to remove potential air contaminants to meet regulated air quality requirements. Given the KSTC’s location, relatively tall exhaust stacks would be required.

    What is the end use or product?

    The end product is a small quantity of ash, which can be landfilled. In some countries, the ash is land applied to harness the mineral content including phosphorus. If other dry products...

    Thermal oxidation is the combustion or burning of organic solids in biosolids to form carbon dioxide and water. The remaining solids are an inert material commonly called ash. Exhaust air in this process is treated to remove potential air contaminants to meet regulated air quality requirements. Given the KSTC’s location, relatively tall exhaust stacks would be required.

    What is the end use or product?

    The end product is a small quantity of ash, which can be landfilled. In some countries, the ash is land applied to harness the mineral content including phosphorus. If other dry products such as dry solid wastes are included in the oxidation process, heat can also be recovered.

    Does this allow for composting of organics/yard waste?

    Solid wastes can be included in the oxidation/gasification process.

    How are contaminants removed?

    Extreme heat will breakdown organic materials and kill all known pathogens.

    Download the Flatsheet


    Replies Closed
  • Windrow Composting

    4 months ago
    The Stakeholder Committee has completed the TBL evaluation of this method. Results will be presented to City Council by the end of Q2 2019.

    You need to be signed in to add your comment.

    Sw biosolidsmanagement graphics 198x148 jan2019 windrow composting

    Windrow composting is a technology in which biosolids are composted in windrows in an open environment or in an enclosed building. Biosolids are then stored in long and narrow windrows and, over time, natural biological reactions would occur. Occasional mixing of the material is required. This technology requires amendment materials such as woodchips, sawdust, and/or yard waste.

    What is the end use or product?

    Biosolids may be used to enhance the agricultural yield of many crops. The end use is the soil enhancement, which results in a higher yield crop.

    Does this...

    Windrow composting is a technology in which biosolids are composted in windrows in an open environment or in an enclosed building. Biosolids are then stored in long and narrow windrows and, over time, natural biological reactions would occur. Occasional mixing of the material is required. This technology requires amendment materials such as woodchips, sawdust, and/or yard waste.

    What is the end use or product?

    Biosolids may be used to enhance the agricultural yield of many crops. The end use is the soil enhancement, which results in a higher yield crop.

    Does this allow for composting of organics/yard waste?

    Yes, curbside organics and yard waste can be included in the composting process.

    How are contaminants removed?

    Similar to in-vessel composting, a large number of micro-organisms including bacteria, fungi, and other organisms such as worms breakdown the organic contaminants in the biosolids. Pathogens are reduced through heat generated from biological reactions. Pathogens are also killed by natural competition between the large numbers of beneficial micro-organisms.




    Replies Closed